Terminology

Japanese Terminology

Counting in Japanese

Ichi – one
Ni – two
San – three
Shi, Yon – four
Go – five
Roku – six
Shichi, Nana – seven
Hachi – eight
Ku, Kyuu – nine
Juu – ten


Stances

Dachi – Stance
Fudou-dachi – Immovable stance.
Gankaku-dachi – Crane stance.
Hachiji-dachi – Open legged stance.
Hangetsu-dachi – Half moon stance.
Heisoku-dachi – Parallel stance (heels and toes together).
Heiko-dachi – Parallel leg stance.
Kiba-dachi – Horse stance, also know as straddle-leg stance or side stance.
Koukutsu-dachi – Back stance.
Kousa-dachi – X stance/Crossed stance.
Musubi-dachi – Attention stance (heels together, toes turned out 45-degrees).
Neko-ashi-dachi – Cat stance.
Reinoji-dachi – L stance.
Sanchin-dachi – Hourglass stance, also know as three-point stance.
Shiko-dachi – Square stance, sumo stance.
Shizentai – Natural stance.
Teiji-dachi – T stance.
Uchi-hachi-dachi – Inverted open leg stance.
Zenkutsu-dachi – Front stance.


Punches

Zuki/Tsuki – Punch.
Age Zuki – Rising punch.
Awase Zuki – U-punch.
Choku Zuki – Straight punch.
Dan Zuki – Double punch.
Gyaku Zuki – Reverse punch.
Hasami Zuki – Scissor punch.
Heiko Zuki – Parallel punch.
Kagi Zuki – Hook punch.
Kizami Zuki – Jab Punch.
Morote Zuki – Augmented punch.
Oi Zuki – Lunge punch, chasing punch.
Ren Zuki – Alternate punch.
Tate Zuki – Vertical punch.
Ura Zuki – Close punch.
Yama Zuki – Mountain punch.


Kicks

Geri/Keri – Kick.
Barai – Sweep.
Ashi Barai – Foot/Leg sweep.
Fumikomi Geri – Stamping kick.
Kakato Geri – Ax kick.
Keage – Snap (kick).
Kekomi – Thrust (kick).
Mae Geri – Front kick.
Mawashi Geri – Roundhouse kick.
Mikazuki Geri – Crescent moon kick.
Nami Ashi – Returning wave kick.
Nidan Geri – Double kick.
Tobi Geri – Jump kick.
Ushiro Geri – Back kick.
Yoko Geri – Side kick.


Blocks

Uke – Block (literally “To receive”).
Age Uke – Rising block.
Awase Uke – Combined block.
Gedan Barai – Downward block, low sweeping block.
Haishu Uke – Backhand block (a block using the back of the hand).
Haitou Uke – Ridge-hand block.
Juuji Uke – X-block.
Kaisho Uke – Open hand block.
Kakiwake Uke – Wedge block.
Keito Uke – Chicken head block.
Kosa Uke – Crossed block.
Mikazuki Geri Uke – Crescent kick block.
Morote Uke – Augmented block.
Osae Uke – Pressing block.
Shutou Uke – Knife hand block.
Soto Uke – Outside block.
Tate Shuto Uke – Vertical knife hand block.
Tettsui Uke – Hammer fist block.
Uchi Uke – Inside block.
Yama Uke – Mountain block.


Miscellaneous terminology

Arigatou – Thank-you.
Arigatou Gozaimashita – Thank you very much.
Barai – Sweep.
Bunkai – Analysis.
Chuudan – Mid-section.
Dan – Step.
Do – Way/path.
Do-gi – Training uniform.
Dojo – Literally, “Place of the way.”┬áThe place where karate is practiced.
Gedan – Lower section.
Gyaku – Reverse.
Hai – Yes.
Hajime – Begin.
Hansei – The command given at the closing mediation after the training session in some dojo, which means to recollect something that you have learned that lesson.
Hidari – Left.
Hikite – Pulling hand.
Ikken-Hissatsu – One deadly strike.
Joudan – Upper level.
Kamiza – Front of the dojo.
Karate – Empty hand.
Karate-do – The way of the empty hand.
Karate-ka – A practitioner of karate.
Kata – A prescribed sequence of techniques against imaginary opponents.
Kiai – A shout.
Kihon – Something which is fundamental. Basic techniques.
Kime – Decision. Often described as focus of power, decisive focus.
Kiotsuke – Attention.
Kyu – Class. Any rank below shodan (first degree black belt).
Maai – Distance.
Mawatte – Turn around.
Migi – Right.
Mokuso – The command given at the meditation before the training session, which means clear your mind in preparation to receive instruction.
Obi – Belt.
Ossu – A greeting.
Rei – Bow.
Reigi – Etiquette, manners.
Saho – Manners, etiquette.
Seiza – Kneel.
Senpai – One’s senior.
Sensei – Teacher.
Shodan – First step, first degree black belt.
Shomen – Front, front of the dojo
Shugo – Gather, assemble.
Tai Sabaki – Body movement/shifting/evasion.
Waza – Technique(s), skill.
Yame – Stop.
Yasumi – Rest.
Yoi – Preparation